Late Period (664-332 B.C.)
Roemer and Pelizaeus Museum, Hildesheim
Hathoric capital showing on each of its sides the image of the goddess Hathor with cow ears and her characteristic wig adorned with flowers. This type of capital, with Hathor’s head on two or all four sides, is found in temples, such as those at Dendera, Abu Simbel and Filae, which are dedicated to female deities.
Hathor was one of the main goddesses of ancient Egyptian religion and performed a variety of functions. As a deity of heaven, she was the mother or consort of the celestial god Horus and the sun god Ra, both related to royalty, which made her the symbolic mother of their representatives on earth, the pharaohs. In her profile as a benefactor, she represented music, dance, joy, love, sexuality and maternal care, also acting as consort of several male deities and mother of their children. These two aspects of this goddess exemplify the Egyptian conception of femininity. She also assisted the departed souls in their transition to the afterlife.
She was often depicted as a cow, but also as a woman with a headdress of cow horns and a solar disk.